IWLA Farm Bill: End Notes

1Farms and Farmland, 2012 Census of Agriculture Highlights, U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Agriculture Statistics Service, September, 2014.

2USDA Economic Research Service, U.S. Bioenergy Statistics, Table 5 (corn supply) and Table 6 (soybean oil supply), for 2015/2016 crop year.

3World Wildlife Fund, 2016 Plowprint Report, documents the loss of grasslands on the Great Plains in the U.S. and south-central Canada.

4Redlin, Brad, The 2012 Farm Bill: Stewardship, Prosperity and Fairness, Izaak Walton League of America, June 2012.

5Congressional Research Service, Previewing a 2018 Farm Bill, March 15, 2017. The estimated spending cited is based on Congressional Budget Office estimates of actual spending (fiscals year 2014-2016) and projected spending (2017-2018), and represents a $28 billion reduction from the $489 billion spending estimated at the time the bill was passed.

6Johnson, Renee, and Monke, Jim, What is the Farm Bill? Congressional Research Service, February, 2017, provides Congressional Budget Office projections for Farm Bill spending.

7Wyant, Sarah, Lesson #3: Regional Divides Make Writing a Farm Bill More of a Gamble, AgriPulse, Feb. 26, 2017.

8Johnson, Renee, and Monke, Jim, What is the Farm Bill? Congressional Research Service, February, 2017.

9Aussenberg, Randy Alison and Colello, Kirsten, Domestic Food Assistance: Summary of Programs, Congressional Research Service, January, 2017.

10Miller, Leah et al, Clean Water: Your Right to Know, Izaak Walton League of America, 2016.

11Morrison, Jim, How Much is Clean Water Worth? National Wildlife, February 1, 2005.

12Dahl, Thomas, Wetlands Loss Since the Revolution, National Wetlands Newsletter, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, November/December, 1990.

13U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Status and Trends of Wetlands in the Conterminous United States, 2004-2009, which says the U.S. saw a net reduction of more than 62,000 acres of wetlands from 2004 to 2009.

14Dahl, T.E., Status and Trends of Prairie Wetlands in the United States 1997 to 2009, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.

15NRCS: Wetland Conservation Provisions in the Prairie Pothole Region, USDA Office of Inspector General, January, 2017.

16USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Wetlands Reserve Program (WRP), WRP Cumulative Agreement Data by State and Fiscal Year.

17USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, ACEP Wetlands Reserve Easements by State. 

18USDA Farm Service Agency, Conservation Reserve Program Monthly Summary – May 2017, reported 7.3 million acres of CRP enrolled in Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (1.1 million acres), farmable wetland (0.4 million acres), and non-CREP continuous signup contracts (5.9 million acres), representing 31% of the 23.5 million acres then enrolled in CRP contracts.

19CRP Bumps Acres Cap, So Signup Will Need to Wait, Farm Futures, May 8, 2017.

20Ohlson, Kristin, The Soil Will Save Us: How Scientists, Farmers and Foodies are Healing the Soil to Save the Planet, 2014, Rodale Press.

21United States Department of Agriculture National Agricultural Statistics Service news release, June 30, 2016, reports that in 2016, corn (94 million acres), soybeans (83 million acres) and wheat (44 million acres) represented 68% of all 323 million acres planted for crops in the U.S.

22Pimental, David, Soil Erosion: A Food and Environmental Threat, Journal of the Environment, Development and Sustainability, Vol. 8, 2006.

23USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2012 National Resources Inventory Summary Report, August 2015, which also reports that from 2007 to 2012, erosion rates increased to 4.60 from 4.59 tons per acre per year.

24Ohlson, Kristin, The Soil Will Save Us, 2014, Rodale Press.

25Claassen, Roger, Have Conservation Compliance Incentives Reduced Soil Erosion?, USDA Economic Research Service, based on National Resources Inventory data from 1982 through 2007.

26Stubbs, Megan, Conservation Compliance and U.S. Farm Policy, Congressional Research Service, June 9, 2014.

27U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, 2007 National Resources Inventory, Soil Erosion on Cropland 2007, reports that in 2007, 27% of cropland in the U.S. was considered Highly Erodible Land with an erodibility index of 8 or higher.

28Stubbs, Megan, Conservation Provisions in the 2014 Farm Bill (PL 113-79), Congressional Research Service, April 24, 2014.

29Woodward, Joshua and Verteramo-Chiu, Leslie, Efficiency Impacts of Utilizing Soil Data in the Pricing of the Federal Crop Insurance Program, Amer.J.Agr.Econ, March 28 2017.

30USDA Announces $252 Million Available for Regional Conservation Partnership Program, USDA news release, January 12, 2017.

31Taxpayers for Common Sense, Fact Sheet: Improving Performance Measurement in Agricultural Conservation Programs, March, 2014.